The Substitute Teachers Reality-Based Field Survival Guide


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No warranty may be created or extended by sales representatives or written sales materials. The advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitable for your situation. You should consult with a professional where appropriate. Neither the publisher nor author shall be liable for any loss of profit or any other commercial damages, including but not limited to special, incidental, consequential, or other damages. Jossey-Bass books and products are available through most bookstores.

Jossey-Bass also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may not be available in electronic books. Language arts Secondary —United States—Handbooks, manuals, etc. High school teaching—United States—Handbooks, manuals, etc. Classroom management—United States—Handbooks, manuals, etc. English teachers—United States—Handbooks, manuals, etc. McKnight, Katherine S. Katherine Siewert II. For Olivia, Nora, Ava, Freya, and Esme, whose creativity, enthusiasm, and love fill my heart with joy every day.

To Jim, Ellie, and Colin, who bring joy to my life, and to the teachers who make a difference every day in preparing our children to be members of our democratic society. This updated second edition explores successful approaches to teaching English and classroom management. It is a book intended for both new teachers who are looking for solutions to potential problems and for more experienced teachers who may be staggering under an enormous teaching load and conflicting demands.

Most of us have chosen to be teachers of English because we love to read or write—or both—and we want to instill and nurture this same passion in our students. We want to be inspiring and provocative, caring and nurturing—a composite of the best teachers who have taught us. While thoroughly satisfying, the teaching of English is also extraordinarily demanding. The reality of the school day—interruptions, forms to fill out, bell schedules, alphabet grades, tardy slips, admits, PA announcements—drains any teacher's energy, vitality, and creativity.

This book will encourage you to look at yourself and your job with a bit of selfishness. To regain or maintain the idealism that caused us to become teachers, we all need to manage and organize our professional lives in such a way that we also have time for ourselves, our families, and our lives outside the classroom. It offers suggestions for beginning the year and managing and planning your classroom efficiently.

It will help you organize your teaching units and design your daily lessons. It offers ideas for developing a grading philosophy and will show you ways to involve both parents and students in the evaluation process.


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This second edition has a new chapter on media literacy and technology and updated resources from the previous edition. It will also help you address controversial issues such as confidentiality and censorship and provides numerous reproducible materials for teaching writing, reading, listening, speaking, and viewing. All of us have heard the term excellent school. We are told that in an excellent school, students should be doing authentic work rather than sitting in rows and working on worksheets or activities with little relevance.

We are told that subjects should be integrated in order to promote intense, interesting learning activities that are meaningful to students. Instead of filling out workbook exercises to learn the mechanics of language, students should be using writing for a real readership. We are told that schools should promote and encourage collaborative activities as well as competitive ones. And, we are told, excellent schools go far beyond the standardized test routine in the evaluation of students by setting up portfolios—collections that show the progress of student work over time.

Most of all, we are told, excellent schools engender an excitement and enthusiasm for learning that students, teachers, and parents share. An excellent school is everyone's goal.


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We each want our classroom to resemble this model as closely as possible. But how do we make it happen? Times have changed, we've changed, and our students have changed. Yesterday's lesson plans aren't meeting our needs or those of our students. Along with plenty of suggestions for writing and reading activities, the Survival Guide includes specific suggestions for integrating the teaching of speaking, listening, writing, literature, and viewing.

It will show you how to introduce cooperative learning activities in your classroom, offer suggestions for portfolio assessment, and provide models for integrating technology. It is intended to help you create an excellent classroom that reflects the excitement for learning that every one of us desires. She has led in-service workshops in Minnesota and was a participant in the Northern Minnesota Writing Project.

In she received the Lila B. During the sabbatical that accompanied the award, she researched the literature of the Ojibwe. Katherine S. McKnight is a former middle and high school teacher who taught in the Chicago Public Schools for ten years and went on to earn her Ph. She is currently associate professor in secondary education at National-Louis University and lives in Chicago. Serving as a consultant for the National Council of Teachers of English, she works in schools all over the United States in many contexts—urban, rural, and suburban—providing professional development in adolescent literacy, curriculum differentiation, arts integration, and strategies for teaching English in the inclusive classroom.

For teachers and students alike, the first day of school is indeed momentous. This is the day students size us up as competent or incompetent, nice or mean, fair or unfair, caring or uncaring. One of the most important plans we make is the lesson design for the first day of the year. Some teachers spend the entire first class period making seat assignments, handing out books, and reading long lists of classroom and school regulations.

If every teacher does this, and many school administrations encourage teachers to do so, a single student may hear a nearly identical set of regulations six or seven times on the first day alone. Of course, all of us are concerned with discipline. But what happens when you let up and the students are so intimidated they are afraid to talk? There are guidelines and limits, of course. Your position tells the students you are the teacher in the classroom. How you function will tell them whether you are up to the task, and you will function best if your planning is thorough and organized.

Begin setting a classroom tone and atmosphere that is right for you from the very first day of school. If you are required to read school regulations and policies, do it on a subsequent day. Take note of what is special for students on this day. If, for example, your students are ninth or tenth graders, this may be their first day in high school. They may have come from several junior highs or middle schools or from other communities.

They must form new friendships and solve new problems in the more complex, less sheltered world of the high school. There may be transfer students who are unfamiliar with the campus and know few classmates. Some students are raring to get busy; others may not want to be in school at all. Give information about your own background, jobs you have held, your family, your interests. Explain why you chose teaching English as a career. Show that you are proud to be a teacher and that you value and respect your work. Be positive about the class you are teaching.

Explain its benefits, and elaborate on these clearly and specifically. What is it the students can expect to learn from you? He argues that positive enforcement only encourages students to seek out more positive enforcement, rather than truly learn. Because of this, he argues that standards should be kept very minimal and is critical of standardized testing. Kohn also argues that a strict curriculum and homework are counterintuitive to student needs.

When it comes to classroom management, Kohn believes that most teachers rely too heavily on extrinsic motivation rather than more intrinsic factors. In general, Kohn believes that there is too much emphasis on achievement rather than the learning process. He emphasizes that not all students learn at the same pace, and standards do not take this into account.

In general, Kohn believes in classrooms where the student is at the center of everything. Ideally, such a classroom would feature:. When educators are able to focus on classroom organization as a means of behavior management, they achieve better results for students. If you are interested in education topics like this, consider the online Master of Education from Husson University. Graduate-level education is ideal for teachers looking to advance their career and become leaders in the classroom and beyond.

You can learn more about this fully online program here. Use these five classroom management apps, tools, and resources to minimize classroom management issues and maximize instructional […]. The Edvocate. Top Menu. Request a Product Review. How Critical is Decoding for Young Readers? Approaches for Teaching Themes in Reading. The Best School Systems in the Country. Foolproof Strategies for Substitute Teachers. I anticipate the further development and distribution of holoportation technologies such as those developed by Microsoft using HoloLens for real-time, three-dimensional augmented reality.

These teaching tools will enable highly sophisticated interactions and engagement with students at a distance. They will further fuel the scaling of learning to reach even more massive online classes. As these tools evolve over the next decade, the academics we work with expect to see radical change in training and workforce development, which will roll into although probably against a longer timeline more traditional institutions of higher learning. Many respondents said real-world, campus-based higher education will continue to thrive during the next decade.

They said a residential university education helps build intangible skills that are not replicable online and thus deepens the skills base of those who can afford to pay for such an education, but they expect that job-specific training will be managed by employers on the job and via novel approaches. The most important skills to have in life are gained through interpersonal experiences and the liberal arts.

Frank Elavsky. Traditional four-year and graduate programs will better prepare people for jobs in the future, as such an education gives people a general understanding and knowledge about their field, and here people learn how to approach new things, ask questions and find answers, deal with new situations, etc. Special skills for a particular job will be learned on the job. These skills are imperative to focus on, as the future is in danger of losing these skillsets from the workforce.

Many people have gained these skills throughout history without any kind of formal schooling, but with the growing emphasis on virtual and digital mediums of production, education and commerce, people will have less and less exposure to other humans in person and other human perspectives. But this does not mean that alternative means and paths of learning and accreditation would not be useful as … complementary to the traditional system that has limitations as well.

Will training for skills most important in the jobs of the future work well in large-scale settings by ? Respondents in this canvassing overwhelmingly said yes, anticipating that improvements in such education would continue. However, many believe the most vital skills are not easy to teach, learn or evaluate in any education or training setting available today. These skills, interestingly, are the skills specific to human beings that machines and robots cannot do … Tiffany Shlain.

There will be an increasing economic incentive to develop mass training that better unlocks this value. Functions requiring emotional intelligence, empathy, compassion, and creative judgment and discernment will expand and be increasingly valued in our culture. These skills, interestingly, are the skills specific to human beings that machines and robots cannot do, and you can be taught to strengthen these skills through education. I look forward to seeing innovative live and online programs that can teach these at scale.

A mindset of persistence and the necessary passion to succeed are also critical. Some who are pessimistic about the future of human work due to advances in capable AI and robotics mocked the current push in the U. An anonymous program director for a major U. The jobs of the future will not need large numbers of workers with a fixed set of skills — most things that we can train large numbers of workers for, we will also be able to train computers to do better. Among the many other skills mentioned were: process-oriented and system-oriented thinking; journalistic skills, including research, evaluation of multiple sources, writing and speaking; understanding algorithms, computational thinking , networking and programming; grasping law and policy; an evidence-based way of looking at the world; time management; conflict resolution; decision-making; locating information in the flood of data; storytelling using data; and influencing and consensus building.

This will include open, online learning experiences e. We will identify opportunities to build a digital version of the apprenticeship learning models that have existed in the past. Alternative credentials and digital badges will provide more granular opportunities to document and archive learning over time from traditional and nontraditional learning sources. Through evolving technologies e. You may get a degree in computer software development, but the truth is that you still need to be taught how to write software for, say, the mortgage company or insurance company that hires you.

The key to the future will be flexibility and personal motivation to learn and tinker with new things. Some predict that many more workers will begin using online and app-based learning systems. Employers will accept these more as they prove probative. And online learning will be more prevalent, even as an adjunct to formal classroom learning. New industries such as green energy and telemedicine will increase new employment opportunities.

Despite all of these measures, the loss of jobs from artificial intelligence and robotics will exceed any retraining program, at least in the short run. William J. Online and credentialing systems are more transparent and do a better job on delivering skills. People with new types of credentialing systems are seen as more qualified than traditional four-year and graduate programs.

Some respondents hope to see change. Schools today turn out widget makers who can make widgets all the same. They are built on producing single right answers rather than creative solutions. Jeff Jarvis. The unfortunate reality is that many HR departments still post job listings saying degrees and certifications are required, as a way of screening candidates.

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Thus, the educational and training programs of the future will become in their best incarnations sophisticated combinations of classroom and hands-on training programs. The specific models will necessarily be responding to individual industry requirements. They are built on an outmoded attention economy: Pay us for 45 hours of your attention and we will certify your knowledge.

I believe that many — not all — areas of instruction should shift to competency-based education in which the outcomes needed are made clear and students are given multiple paths to achieve those outcomes, and they are certified not based on tests and grades but instead on portfolios of their work demonstrating their knowledge. Some even say the future of jobs for humans is so baleful that capitalism may fail as an economic system.

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The next themes and subthemes examine these responses. A large share of respondents predicted that online formats for knowledge transfer will not advance significantly in the next decade. Interestingly, being able to adapt and respond to looming challenges was seen by nearly everyone in this canvassing as one of the most highly prized future capabilities; these respondents especially agree that it is important, and they say that our human institutions — government, business, education — are not adapting efficiently and are letting us down.

Many of them say that current K or K education programs are incapable of making adjustments within the next decade to serve the shifting needs of future jobs markets. Among the other reasons listed by people who do not expect these kinds of transformative advances in job creation and job skill upgrading:. Following are representative statements tied to these points and more from all respondents.

Traditional models train people to equate what they do with who they are i. Pamela Rutledge. Learning takes time and practice, which means it requires money, lots of money, to significantly change the skill set of a large cohort. As manufacturing and many labor-intensive jobs move overseas or are fully mechanized, we will see a bulge in service jobs. These require good people skills, something that is often hard to train online.

Individual training — like programming or learning how to cook — may not be what will be needed. The most important skills are advanced critical thinking and knowledge of globalization affecting diverse societies — culturally, religiously and politically. We have traditional institutions invested in learning as a supply-side model rather [than] demand-side that would create proactive, self-directed learners. This bias impacts the entire process, from educators to employers.

It is changing, but beliefs are sticky and institutions are cumbersome bureaucracies that are slow to adapt. New delivery systems for skills related to technology will be more readily accepted than traditional ones because they avoid much of the embedded bias. I have zero confidence in us having the political will to address the socio-economic factors that are underpinning skill training.

Furthermore, we have serious geographic mismatches, underlying discriminatory attitudes, and limited opportunities for lower- [to] mid-level career advancement. It just sounds nice. Many respondents emphasized that the most crucial skill is that people have to learn how to learn and be self-motivated to keep learning. My biggest concern with self-directed learning is that it requires a great deal of internal motivation. And I am not confident that individuals will find their way … David Berstein. So everyone will still need some basic skills interpersonal communications, basic arithmetic, along with some general culture awareness [so] they can have that flexibility.

What I worry about is how well they will adapt when they are 35 or This ability to adapt is what distinguished Homo sapiens from other species through natural selection. As the rate of technological innovation intensifies, the workforce of the future will need to adapt to new technology and new markets. The people who can adapt the best and fastest will win.

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This view means that any given set of skills will become obsolete quickly as innovations change the various economic sectors: precision agriculture, manufacturing 4. Therefore, the challenge is not only to teach skills, but also how to adapt and learn new skills. Whether the traditional programs or new programs will be better at teaching adaptive learning remains to be seen.

Many ambitious federal and state programs have fizzled, to produce dismal to no statistical change in the caliber of K education.

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Online mediums and self-directed approaches may be limited in effectiveness with certain labor segments unless supplemented by human coaching and support systems. It is true that most online courses require self-direction. But in-person courses may also be self-directed. This works well for some students but not others.

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Students who are self-directed often have had a very good foundational education and supportive parents. They have been taught to think critically and they know that the most important thing you can learn is how to learn. And they are also are more likely to come from economic privilege. So, not only does the self-direction factor pose a problem for teaching at scale, the fact that a high degree of self-direction may be required for successful completion of coursework towards the new workforce means that existing structures of inequality will be replicated in the future if we rely on these large-scale programs.

The problem of future jobs is not one of skills training — it is one of diminishing jobs. How will we cope with a workforce that is simply irrelevant? Jennifer Zickerman. But in the next decade or two, there is likely to be a significant amount of technological innovation in machine intelligence and personal assistants that takes a real swipe out of the jobs we want humans to have in education, health care, transportation, agriculture and public safety.

As for the skills for the employed fraction of advanced countries, I think they will be difficult to teach. Nathaniel Borenstein. Algorithms, automation and robotics will result in capital no longer needing labor to progress the economic agenda. Labor becomes, in many ways, surplus to economic requirements.

By the time the training programs are widely available, the required skills will no longer be required. The whole emphasis of training must now be directed towards personal life skills development rather than the traditional working career-based approach. There is also the massive sociological economic impact of general automation and AI that must be addressed to redistribute wealth and focus life skills at lifelong learning.

We urgently need to explore how to distribute the increasing wealth of complex goods and services our civilization produces to a populace that will be increasingly jobless in the traditional sense. The current trend of concentrating wealth in the hands of a diminishing number of ultra-rich individuals is unsustainable.

All of this while dealing with the destabilizing effects of climate change and the adaptations necessary to mitigate its worst impacts. Some of these experts projected further out into the future, imagining a world where the machines themselves learn and overtake core human emotional and cognitive capacities.


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The Substitute Teachers Reality-Based Field Survival Guide The Substitute Teachers Reality-Based Field Survival Guide
The Substitute Teachers Reality-Based Field Survival Guide The Substitute Teachers Reality-Based Field Survival Guide
The Substitute Teachers Reality-Based Field Survival Guide The Substitute Teachers Reality-Based Field Survival Guide
The Substitute Teachers Reality-Based Field Survival Guide The Substitute Teachers Reality-Based Field Survival Guide
The Substitute Teachers Reality-Based Field Survival Guide The Substitute Teachers Reality-Based Field Survival Guide

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