En palabras de Sandra M. Aun cuando oramos, leemos la Biblia, o participamos a solas en otras experiencias espirituales, lo hacemos en la conciencia colectiva de un ambiente comunitario. No estamos solos aunque estemos solos.
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Es una jornada, un camino, un peregrinaje diario y no tanto un destino final al cual llegamos de una vez por todas. Los seres humanos hemos sido auto programados para estar en control, para ser los sujetos y no los objetos de las experiencias de la vida. Las verdaderas disciplinas espirituales alteran el orden natural de nosotros ser los sujetos en control, y nos hacen objetos del amor y el cuidado de Dios. Si oramos para que Dios nos bendiga, tenemos nuestra propia agenda y somos los actores y actoras en control.
Lo mismo cuando ayunamos, leemos la Biblia, damos ofrenda, o lo que sea. Disciplinas espirituales y cuidado pastoral El mensaje de la vida de Cristo en el mundo establece, confirma, y celebra una comunidad como parte de su identidad desde los mismos inicios del plan divino para la humanidad. Efesios En primer lugar, Pablo insta a los creyentes a que anden como sabios. Es un conocimiento experimental griego epignosis del ser antes que del hacer. Literalmente, significa comprar agorazo en el mercado agora , todo el kairos el tiempo preciso, el plan total de Dios para la vida.
Esto es contrario a la vida individualista de la sociedad secular. Requiere morir a nuestras agendas personales. Omitir cualquiera de estos elementos es convertirse en una persona espiritualmente lisiada. Aprender a orar es aprender a amar, afirmaba. Excerpted by permission of Abingdon Press.
All rights reserved. According to Weber, the men of his time were simply unable to imagine how much the West had already been religious. Max Weber's sociology reiterates this several times: secularization is something that has already happened , and, as a result, no longer requires sociologists to value it, or wish it, or regret it. The intention is more modest. It is not a matter of predicting, of projecting, but of objectively documenting the change.
Jahrhunderts ]" PE, p. Schluchter, , p. Weber did this.
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He treated the thing as a fact of modernity. There is no way of doubting this. The thematic contents of Weber's work are saturated with this motif of "two times", motif already explicit in , when The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism was published, and recurrently encountered in all subsequent theorizations tied to the process of secularization, in and out of his Essays on the Sociology of Religion GARS. Two times: 1 a past time, time of influential religiosity and a strong ecclesiality, where "the Beyond is all" that matters to human beings, and 2 the present time, Weber's present as it was at the turn of the XX century, but also our present as we see it now, the time we live in, we social scientists who work in a vocation Berufsmenschen , we, "utilitarian heirs" utilitarischen Erbin of this "era of gaily dressed religiosity" that was the begining of modernity.
And, as it stands, makes much more sense to Weber. After all, he is the author of the concept of disenchantment of the world Entzauberung der Welt and the appearance of this molto particolare word is much more widespread than the appearance of the word secularization. This process would appear described succinctly and dated in a later insertion, made in by Weber himself, for the last edition of The Protestant Ethic cf. Tenbruck, , originally published, as everyone knows, in Secularization and disenchantment: critics tend to treat them as synonyms, and to accept them though not always as being equivalent.
Indeed, they are more than subtle. The terms do not say the same thing, they do not cover the same area and they do not deal with the same issue. For Weber, the disenchantment of the world takes place precisely in more religious societies, and it is an essentially religious process , because it is the ethical religions that provide the elimination of magic as a means of salvation. As is also explained in this other passage of The Protestant Ethic , in which Weber establishes stylistically, with the use of a colon, the following equation: "the disenchantment of the world: the elimination of magic as a means of salvation.
Secularization, on the other hand, implies abandonment, reduction, subtraction of religious status ; signifies sortie de la religion Gauchet, ; it is defection, a loss for religion and an emancipation. It is with this meaning that Weber refers, in his essay on sects, to the process of secularization. Used this way, it is a result, a consequence, in a way a finishing point, a logical conclusion of the historical-religious process of disenchantment of the world. For Weber, the process of rationalization is larger and farther reaching than the disenchantment of the world and, in this way, embraces it; the disenchantment of the world, for its turn, has a history that is longer, and more extensive than that of secularization and, in this way, includes it.
It is worth noting that Weber really makes a distinction between the different processes. With both these processes intertwined in the process of modernization, the effect of the latter on religion cannot be anything other than negative, seeing as it consolidates and promotes the advance of disenchantment of the world through increased rationalization of political domination which is, as we will see later when we deal with Weber's sociology of law, irresistibly secularizing.
Notwithstanding, it has become usual in the present day to shuffle the two concepts, at the same time that it has almost become a unanimity to consider Max Weber "the" author of the theory of secularization or at least its greatest exponent Matthes, ; Rendtorff, ; Luhmann, ; Martin, ; Seyfarth, ; Dobbelaere, , and ; Wilson, , , and Among current social scientists interested in religion, mention theory of secularization, and you are mentioning Weber.
The truth is that some prefer to call it a "thesis" of secularization, not a "theory" of secularization, to keep it clear that they are denying his work the status of a distinct theoretical body of work, or to make it clear that they seriously doubt it.
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It is as if they wanted to say "the King is naked", but they are not innocent enough to say it; they lack that child-like spontaneity found in Andersen's tales, in as much as, deep down, the critics of secularization have also become aware that they are irredeemably disenchanted. They would like to be ironical, but instead they project, in the psychoanalytic meaning of the word: the scientific theory of secularization is nothing more than a belief, a credo, "a doctrine which is more than a theory " Hadden, , p.
Jeffrey Hadden, in formulating a pseudo-criticism in the most forceful manner, states that "a close examination reveals that there really is not any type of theory there" Hadden, , p. And if not that, then intellectual deceit. Or a myth Ferrarotti, Those who support and accept the theory act and apply it as if it were a theoretical paradigm in the proper sense of the word, associating it volentieri to the great Weberian theory. Here, the theory of secularization is treated by researchers and scholars as a supporting beam for every and any sociology of religion approach which is deemed Weberian cf.
Dobbelaere, , and ; Lechner, ; Crippen, and ; Wilson, and and which, beyond this, is intended to be scientifically respectable due to its automatic casting of its functions not only over empirical data but also, and preeminently, over general theory. In this case, a general theory of the structural change from traditional societies to modern societies which, at the end of the day, according to Habermas, 14 coincides with the very definition of sociology as a scientific-academic discipline. Frank Lechner's commentary about the affiliation of Weberian theory of secularization sums it up well:.
The theory of secularization is a general theory of societal change and consists of a coherent empirical body of empirical generalizations that lean on fundamental Weberian premises. According to these familiar premises, in certain societies the world view and institutions anchored in transcendence lose social and cultural influence as a result of the dynamic of rationalization [ Lechner, , p.
He forgot to mention, as a safety measure, Weber's scarce use of the word. My point of departure in this essay lies specifically in this, in underlining the fact that the Weber that we have before us makes a habit of talking about a thing without calling it by its name, a trait of his that drew out in me the appetite of a philologist. Let us return to the name, to the word on the screen, with a view to speculating a little more about the lesson we can learn from its use by Max Weber.
Marramao, , p.
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For a person unanimously considered the "theory's father", the few, even scarce times that Weber uses the term never cease to be intriguing. Because the use of the word is so rare, it becomes easier to account for its appearances throughout Weber's work. And that is what I have done, hoping that the mere distribution of its frequency in Weber's writings could, in and of itself, have something important to say. The fact is that most of those scarce occasions in which Weber used the word "secularization" appear in his sociology of law , in the long and almost never fully read chapter VII of the second part of the first volume of Economy and Society , entitled Rechtssoziologie Weber, , from now on WuG, pp.
The search for the word secularization yielded eight mentions in this chapter, each discussing the idea in a rich variety of levels and different aspects. And all concentrated in a space of approximately 40 pages, when in truth the essay as a whole has more than pages. Though the reading is arduous, 15 we all know that in his sociology of law, given the insistence with which Weber mentions this motif, what became decisive for him and, according to him, decisive for all of us, "product of modern western civilization" was the fact that in the West, and only in the West, there was a development of juridical rationality that in turn gave rise to the modern concept of formally legitimate and legitimately reversible legal-juridical order.
As befits the aim of this article, it is worth emphasizing the fact that the Christian church and its holy laws have become increasingly differentiated and separated from secular law-making cf. The level of distinctness presented at the very start of capitalist modernization by this specific separation of normative spheres cleared the way for the imposition of laws that could only emanate legitimately from secular authorities and which, beyond this, paved the way for the logical development of juridical formalism, tied in intimate elective affinity to "ideal interests" or to use jargon which is even more markedly Weberian, to "intrinsic intellectual necessities" of theoretic jurists and their disciples at the Schools of Law, so much in vogue during early Medieval times.
Weber stresses for a reason that modern law's essential trait is its systematic character , in great part due to modern law being, quite specifically, "a law made by jurists" Habermas, , p. In the final section of the essay, dedicated to the formal qualities of modern law, Weber himself draws a synthetic picture of the rationalization of juridical practices and concepts in the West. Here are the four stages of the Weberian scheme for juridical rationalization:. The general development of law and the process can be laid out in the following "stages of theoretical development": 1 first, charismatic revelation of law through "law prophets" [ Rechtspropheten ]; 2 second, empirical creation and finding of law by legal honoratiores , i.
WuG, p. These are the general outlines of the process and, at the same time, rudimentary traits of the general script that Weber follows in his elaboration of the sociology of law. The path taken by rationalization processes in Weber's sociology is neither mechanical nor linear, nor does it keep from being "evolutionary" cf. Seyfarth, , developmental cf. Schluchter, and The stages are not established ahead of time, there are detours, and the final result is not characterized like a telos predetermined to be reached.
The process takes place on the way and the stages, like the detours, are identified ex post and objectively by the researcher. The point of departure is always sacral ; the finishing line is always desacralized. Each cultural sphere of value, in the internal rationalization process, takes the same path but with a different script cf. Without any historical necessity that it be so.
Disenchanted logical-rational formalism championed by law in the final yards of high modernity began to develop "based on a combination" of irrationalities already current in the primitive juridical process: "a combination of magically conditioned formalism and irrationality conditioned by revelation".
A tendency towards formalism becomes dominant, which in turn recovers the direction taken by the process in terms of a "growing systematization and specialization of juridical rationalization". In the final stage, the formal qualities of law, "at least from a purely external point of view", stresses Weber, end up taking shape in the contemporary form of an "increasingly logical sublimation and increasingly deductive power, and develop an increasingly rational technique of juridical procedure" WuG, pp.
In this way, Weber is describing in other words the stages already identified. More than once, however, he appointed himself the task of identifying and defining four stages in this long trajectory. The general picture of juridical rationalization, whose unfolding Weber charts throughout a text that does not exactly exude clarity and which contains the eight passages that we are concerned with here, could just as easily be subtitled "disenchantment of law". Or even, "disenchantment of the law". Schluchter, by analogy with the "disenchantment of the paths of salvation", forged before the rest of us, the symmetrical expression "disenchantment of the legal paths".
Which Habermas , p. Habermas achieves the feat of retranslating the four stages into three: "Weber rebuilds an evolution that starts from revealed law, passes through traditional law and ends up in modern law. Unlike Habermas's ternary scheme, Weber's contains the most important steps taken in this development, which are simultaneously objectively and theoretically construed, but which, it is worth noting, do not follow on in historic reality in the same order nor with the same disposition as the three moments mentioned by Habermas, without one or the other of the four stages occurring.
What, from my point of view, is interesting is the direction taken by the process: towards a growing autonomy of law in relation to the irrationality of religiously revealed ancient law. Accompanying the developmental line of the field of law and legislation, Weber goes on to note a common element in western juridical-legal innovations: the adoption of techniques which are always rational instead of stereotypical magical formulae and "charismatic revelations of the law", in other words, replacing divinely revealed laws, and so abandoning old procedural approaches endemic to ancient law, dismissed now as irrational, uncertain, incoherent and arbitrary practices Walton, ; Brubaker, , that are, furthermore, stuck in the sacredness sometimes absolute of tradition.
Such an apprenticeship, "has only been fully realized in the West" WuG, p. That said, let us examine the different meanings under which secularization appears in this chapter. Let us examine the different connotations it ends up acquiring in the different contexts of the same Weberian text. Passage 1. The first time it appears, the content of the word secularization has an eminently technical meaning: expropriation of ecclesiastical goods. Content circumscribed to the ever tense planes of the relationships between religious and political communities, and even more specifically, to the plane of intricate material relations "of the law" between priests and polis.
Secularization of the cult represents, in this passage, the expropriation of the temple's goods, after this moment in time considered to be property of the polis. Hierocratic goods have become secularized. We will see further on that it is precisely with this technical meaning that the word came to be used in the dawn of modern time, during the wars of religion. Passage 2. This passage is key to Weber's sociology of law. Habermas comments that, in the evolution of law, the normative accord ends up having to suffer a dislocation, that is, ends up needing to transform itself from a deal "supposed by tradition" to an accord "communicatively reached", which is what Weber defines as an agreement.
Contrary to this, it would remain in what is still a very casuistic and empirical level of jurisprudence. The level of theoretical jurisprudence still has to be reached which, in contrast to empirical jurisprudence, attempts to submit its materials to the formal logic of the especially scholarly theoretical jurists, capacitated by this to build juridical systems , characterized by the high degree of formal rationality cf.
Berman, It is worth, in keeping with the specificities of this passage, performing a synopsis to connect us to a twin passage, located in another chapter of Economy and Society , that deals with the sociology of religion , precisely in the section about the prophet , one of the points of the ideal-typical triangle "sorcerer-priest-prophet" WuG, v.
I, part II, chap. The sorcerer, as member of an enterprise of salvation with an associative community-like nature, is legitimized by his office; the prophet, like the charismatic sorcerer, acts singularly in virtue of extraordinary personal gifts. The prophet distinguishes himself from the sorcerer by the fact that the substance of his mission does not consist in self-interested manipulation of sacred powers, but in ethical doctrines or imperatives WuG, p. This is vital to the whole of Weber's sociology. The sorcerer enchants, and makes a living from enchantments produced by strictly following traditional formulae; the prophet disenchants, expels enchantments and the enchanted, as well as those that enchant.
He desacralizes. He is an iconoclast. In view of this, the sharp distinction Weber establishes between the prophet, on the one side, and the priest and the sorcerer, on the other, ends up playing a crucial role in the drawing up of a desacralizing vector of the nature of prophecy.
According to Giacomo Marramao's happy formulation , p. And so, it is in this precise context of the sociology of religion, amidst a profusion of topical examples with which he enjoys illustrating his essays, that Weber, in the same way that he does in the sociology of law, sends the reader back again to the Australian aborigines to call "secularization" the relinquishment of the ancestral practice of taking into consideration during lineage-chief reunions ear-marked for the formulation of new decisions with normative strength, in specific regions of Australia revelations made to sorcerers in their dreams.
The fact, says Weber, of this use falling into disuse constitutes a "secularization", although it does not constitute the main body of the process of secularization that sweeps across the West with modernization. It is worth noting, in this passage, that "secularization" is placed inside quotation marks. Writes Weber: "Originally, it was difficult to have a reorganization of community relations without previously consulting the witch-doctor. We stand before the secularization of juridical thought. Nothing better than an armed revolution, with its political radicalism and motivational density, to emancipate juridical and legal practices from traditional mental structures, from magically shaped thought, and thus propel the secularization of juridical norms to a superior level, to the level of the discussion of the very claim for validity of these norms.
Having achieved this crossing, such a post-traditional stage of thought is reached, itself the condition for the possibility of not only moving forward, in juridical terms, the adoption of rational procedures and techniques, but also, and principally, of rationally founding the validity of norms without having to call upon the sanctity of tradition or supra-sensitive and irrational forces.
In order to carry out, successfully, the conception of the very foundations of the validity of law, it is evidently necessary to possess some skill in abstraction, in intellectual refinement. Or rather, in Weber's sociology, theoretical rationalization signifies and implies intellectualization. This is basic. The influx of political factors will not suffice, moreover, even if they possess extraordinary radicalism and the creating force of an armed revolution.
With university-taught law, advances in rationality are more than just practical, like the examples cited for Australia, they are theoretical and meta-theoretical. The more that juridical training becomes restricted to this "academic model" of producing jurists, which we all know consists of an institutionalized educational enterprise with a special inclination towards theory, or better put, towards abstract theorization, the more one can expect the constant increase of chances to rationalize law in the direction of ever increasing formalizations systematization, structurization, articulation, unification, homogenization, abstraction, universalization, etc.
Without forgetting, meanwhile, as Hubert Treiber , p.
This is what Weber suggests with respect to the high level of formalism and technicality found in Roman law, so much more rationalized in a logical sense than medieval law, much more immune than the latter to substantive considerations, even those religious in nature. In Weber's work, juridical rationalization is carried out, above all else, with increasing formal rationality. At the end of the affair, nevertheless, the dominance in the process of rationalization in law is really grasped by formal rationality.
As Brubaker says, in Weberian theorization formalism is to modern juridical rationality what calculability is to capitalist rationality Brubaker, , p. Weber habitually associates theoretical-formal rationalization with the idea of sublimation, another vocabulary loan in which the term undergoes a peculiar shift of meaning. According to him, juridical concepts, like religious concepts, underwent a process of sublimation in the West. But, to get to this result, "what was really decisive, before anything else, was the complete secularization of the administration of the system of justice " EyS, p.
Herein, says Weber, lies the great explanatory force.
In doing this in the field of law, there is no way of eluding the extremely direct relation existent between juridical-legal formalism that slowly takes over western law and the systematic schooling of jurists in Schools of Law. In other words, that training in theoretical-deductive thinking received in schools of higher learning dedicated to teaching Law.
The more the old model of practical training evolved in the direction of the academic model of teaching, the greater the chances of increasing and making more sophisticate the logical-formal qualities of modern law Schluchter, and ; Treiber, But extra-juridical factors also have a causal impact. At times decisive, such as on the relation between the formalism of modern law and urban middle classes, the bourgeoisie.
Chasing, throughout the history of cultures, indicators of the expansion of rationality in the legal environment, Weber observes that "where this link [to powerful groups of individuals strongly interested in the rational character of law and procedure, as happened with the middle classes in Rome at the end of the Middle Ages and the modern era] was missing, the secularization of law and distinct differentiation of rigorous juridical-formal thought could not go further.
The intrinsic interests of the stratum of jurists and their intellectual habits are one thing, quite another the economic and organizational interests of the business classes and their way of life. Both constellations of interests and manners, when dealing with questioning factors that led to the increasing formal rationalization of modern law, came together, according to Weber, in order to drive the process in the same direction.
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Which explains why, in the aforementioned passage, he attributes the fine-tuning of juridical-formal thought in modern western culture to the decisive influence of bourgeois strata. And, because increased formalization and objectivity of inter-individual relations are of interest to the bourgeoisie, Weber does not fail to take into consideration the influence of the urban middle class and its ethos on the secularization of a series of juridical norms that regulate and sanction contractual relations and that are valid for everyone.
Before drawing the commentary of this passage to a close, this quick observation must be made: here, as usual, Weber does not miss the opportunity to pay homage to a portion of truth that he finds in a Marxist analysis. When he finds it. Passage 7. A perfect blend of formal rationality and substantive rationality is found, according to Weber, in modern natural law Habermas, ; Treiber, It encompasses, harmoniously, technicalities, conceptual clarity and precision, formal logic and deductive rigor, coherent structuring and the ability to be systematic, intellectual sophistication and skilled abstraction, reaching nothing less than the superior rational plane of justification by principles.
But it also includes value. This is what Weber implies when he identifies, discreetly, a certain religious implication in the imposition of jusnaturalism, depicting it as a "doctrine endowed with a distinct force", which means: endowed with that metajuridical materiality inherent to jusnaturalist axioms that call for commitments of will as well as of reason. Which means, the sum total of norms whose validity stems not by virtue of a legitimate legislator [which would be procedural legitimation], but by virtue of purely imminent qualities.
Or rather: natural law is a phenomenon of secularization par excellence , a theoretical-practical fruit of the secularization of thought instituted by modern philosophy, this bearer of the most radical aspiration to set down foundations of itself through reason. Weber calls this "growing secularization of thought". It so happens that the legitimizing tonus of natural law, made to last, ends up lasting little. It does not manage to cross the XIX century. The fact is that the secularizing trend also advances over metajuridical axiomatics to take "something more" from it that Weber cannot quite put a name to, but in this case calls it a "distinct force" in order to avoid the word "charisma".
As a consequence of this, throughout the XIX century natural law loses strength as a fundamental reference of Kulturmenschen. It has lost, in every case, the capacity to serve as a foundation for law". In other words, it has lost a lot. And it is in this context that Weber returns to the thematization of the question of religious law: "Compared to the robust faith in the positive character of religious revelation of a juridical norm, or the inviolable sanctity of a very archaic tradition, the norms reached through abstraction, however convincing they may be, in this respect have a structure that is excessively subtle.
In consequence of this, the advance of juridical positivism is unstoppable. What does this mean? Convert currency. Add to Basket. Compare all 16 new copies. Book Description Condition: New. Seller Inventory n. More information about this seller Contact this seller. Condition: New. Language: Spanish. Brand new Book.
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