Due to pharmacological differences between these medications e. Text color Transcription factors. Prescriber's Guide: Stahl's Essential Psychopharmacology 6th ed. Retrieved 5 August Retrieved 8 August United States Food and Drug Administration.
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Shire US Inc. December Retrieved 30 December Foye's Principles of Medicinal Chemistry 7th ed. Retrieved 5 November University of Alberta. Primary Care Pediatrics. Onset: 30 min. Retrieved 4 October Onset of action: 1—1. In Millichap JG ed. Table 9. October Retrieved 18 May Hazardous Substances Data Bank. Archived from the original on 2 October Retrieved 2 October Duration of effect varies depending on agent and urine pH. Excretion is enhanced in more acidic urine. Amphetamines are distributed into most body tissues with high concentrations occurring in the brain and CSF. August Retrieved 8 November Retrieved 27 May Amedra Pharmaceuticals LLC.
February Retrieved 4 September International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. Archived from the original on 17 March Retrieved 14 March One of a pair of molecular entities which are mirror images of each other and non-superposable. JAMA Psychiatry. Acta Psychiatrica Scand. Basal ganglia regions like the right globus pallidus, the right putamen, and the nucleus caudatus are structurally affected in children with ADHD. These changes and alterations in limbic regions like ACC and amygdala are more pronounced in non-treated populations and seem to diminish over time from child to adulthood.
Treatment seems to have positive effects on brain structure. CNS Drugs. Several other studies,  including a meta-analytic review  and a retrospective study,  suggested that stimulant therapy in childhood is associated with a reduced risk of subsequent substance use, cigarette smoking and alcohol use disorders. Recent studies have demonstrated that stimulants, along with the non-stimulants atomoxetine and extended-release guanfacine, are continuously effective for more than 2-year treatment periods with few and tolerable adverse effects.
The effectiveness of long-term therapy includes not only the core symptoms of ADHD, but also improved quality of life and academic achievements. The most concerning short-term adverse effects of stimulants, such as elevated blood pressure and heart rate, waned in long-term follow-up studies.
The current data do not support the potential impact of stimulants on the worsening or development of tics or substance abuse into adulthood. Ongoing research has provided answers to many of the parents' concerns, and has confirmed the effectiveness and safety of the long-term use of medication. Among significantly improved outcomes, the largest effect sizes were found for combination treatment. The greatest improvements were associated with academic, self-esteem, or social function outcomes.
Therapeutic relatively low doses of psychostimulants, such as methylphenidate and amphetamine, improve performance on working memory tasks both in normal subjects and those with ADHD. Thus, stimulants improve performance on effortful but tedious tasks Beyond these general permissive effects, dopamine acting via D1 receptors and norepinephrine acting at several receptors can, at optimal levels, enhance working memory and aspects of attention.
Only one paper 53 examining outcomes beyond 36 months met the review criteria. Retrieved 12 November Cochrane Database Syst. The procognitive actions of psychostimulants are only associated with low doses. Surprisingly, despite nearly 80 years of clinical use, the neurobiology of the procognitive actions of psychostimulants has only recently been systematically investigated. Collectively, this evidence indicates that at low, clinically relevant doses, psychostimulants are devoid of the behavioral and neurochemical actions that define this class of drugs and instead act largely as cognitive enhancers improving PFC-dependent function.
In particular, in both animals and humans, lower doses maximally improve performance in tests of working memory and response inhibition, whereas maximal suppression of overt behavior and facilitation of attentional processes occurs at higher doses. Specifically, in a set of experiments limited to high-quality designs, we found significant enhancement of several cognitive abilities.
The results of this meta-analysis Amphetamine has been shown to improve consolidation of information 0. Dopamine acts in the nucleus accumbens to attach motivational significance to stimuli associated with reward. JS Online. Archived from the original on 15 August Retrieved 2 December Amphetamines and caffeine are stimulants that increase alertness, improve focus, decrease reaction time, and delay fatigue, allowing for an increased intensity and duration of training NCAA Publications.
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National Collegiate Athletic Association. Retrieved 8 October Sports Med. In , Chandler and Blair 47 showed significant increases in knee extension strength, acceleration, anaerobic capacity, time to exhaustion during exercise, pre-exercise and maximum heart rates, and time to exhaustion during maximal oxygen consumption VO2 max testing after administration of 15 mg of dextroamphetamine versus placebo.
Most of the information to answer this question has been obtained in the past decade through studies of fatigue rather than an attempt to systematically investigate the effect of ADHD drugs on exercise. In high-ambient temperatures, dopaminergic manipulations clearly improve performance. The distribution of the power output reveals that after dopamine reuptake inhibition, subjects are able to maintain a higher power output compared with placebo.
Dopaminergic drugs appear to override a safety switch and allow athletes to use a reserve capacity that is 'off-limits' in a normal placebo situation. Manipulations of dopaminergic signaling profoundly influence interval timing, leading to the hypothesis that dopamine influences internal pacemaker, or "clock," activity. For instance, amphetamine, which increases concentrations of dopamine at the synaptic cleft advances the start of responding during interval timing, whereas antagonists of D2 type dopamine receptors typically slow timing; Depletion of dopamine in healthy volunteers impairs timing, while amphetamine releases synaptic dopamine and speeds up timing.
Aside from accounting for the reduced performance of mentally fatigued participants, this model rationalizes the reduced RPE and hence improved cycling time trial performance of athletes using a glucose mouthwash Chambers et al. Dopamine stimulating drugs are known to enhance aspects of exercise performance Roelands et al. This indicates that subjects did not feel they were producing more power and consequently more heat. The authors concluded that the "safety switch" or the mechanisms existing in the body to prevent harmful effects are overridden by the drug administration Roelands et al.
Taken together, these data indicate strong ergogenic effects of an increased DA concentration in the brain, without any change in the perception of effort. National Institute on Drug Abuse. Retrieved 7 May Retrieved 27 February Rather they are intended to limit claims by pharmaceutical companies. Arbor Pharmaceuticals LLC. September Retrieved 20 July International Programme on Chemical Safety.
Retrieved 24 June Child Adolesc. Tris Pharma, Inc. May Retrieved 4 August Retrieved 29 April Table 2. Retrieved 4 November Psychiatry Edgmont. Merck Manual for Health Care Professionals. Retrieved 8 May Shoptaw SJ, Ali R ed. A minority of individuals who use amphetamines develop full-blown psychosis requiring care at emergency departments or psychiatric hospitals. In such cases, symptoms of amphetamine psychosis commonly include paranoid and persecutory delusions as well as auditory and visual hallucinations in the presence of extreme agitation.
Findings from one trial indicate use of antipsychotic medications effectively resolves symptoms of acute amphetamine psychosis. BMC Psychiatry. In these studies, amphetamine was given in consecutively higher doses until psychosis was precipitated, often after — mg of amphetamine Archived from the original PDF on 3 November Retrieved 2 November This study demonstrates that humans, like nonhumans, prefer a place associated with amphetamine administration.
These findings support the idea that subjective responses to a drug contribute to its ability to establish place conditioning. Dialogues Clin. Despite the importance of numerous psychosocial factors, at its core, drug addiction involves a biological process: the ability of repeated exposure to a drug of abuse to induce changes in a vulnerable brain that drive the compulsive seeking and taking of drugs, and loss of control over drug use, that define a state of addiction.
Moreover, there is increasing evidence that, despite a range of genetic risks for addiction across the population, exposure to sufficiently high doses of a drug for long periods of time can transform someone who has relatively lower genetic loading into an addict. Mount Sinai School of Medicine. Department of Neuroscience. Retrieved 9 February Substance-use disorder: A diagnostic term in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-5 referring to recurrent use of alcohol or other drugs that causes clinically and functionally significant impairment, such as health problems, disability, and failure to meet major responsibilities at work, school, or home.
Depending on the level of severity, this disorder is classified as mild, moderate, or severe. Addiction: A term used to indicate the most severe, chronic stage of substance-use disorder, in which there is a substantial loss of self-control, as indicated by compulsive drug taking despite the desire to stop taking the drug. In the DSM-5, the term addiction is synonymous with the classification of severe substance-use disorder. This is known to occur on many genes including fosB and c-fos in response to psychostimulant exposure. Chronic exposure to psychostimulants increases glutamatergic [signaling] from the prefrontal cortex to the NAc.
Coincident and convergent input often induces plasticity on a postsynaptic neuron. The NAc integrates processed information about the environment from basolateral amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex PFC , as well as projections from midbrain dopamine neurons. Previous studies have demonstrated how dopamine modulates this integrative process. For example, high frequency stimulation potentiates hippocampal inputs to the NAc while simultaneously depressing PFC synapses Goto and Grace, KEGG Pathway.
Retrieved 31 October Most addictive drugs increase extracellular concentrations of dopamine DA in nucleus accumbens NAc and medial prefrontal cortex mPFC , projection areas of mesocorticolimbic DA neurons and key components of the "brain reward circuit". Amphetamine achieves this elevation in extracellular levels of DA by promoting efflux from synaptic terminals. Chronic exposure to amphetamine induces a unique transcription factor delta FosB, which plays an essential role in long-term adaptive changes in the brain.
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The net result is gene activation and increased CDK5 expression. The net result is c-fos gene repression. Transcriptional mechanisms of addiction: role of DeltaFosB". Such agents also have important therapeutic uses; cocaine, for example, is used as a local anesthetic Chapter 2 , and amphetamines and methylphenidate are used in low doses to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and in higher doses to treat narcolepsy Chapter Despite their clinical uses, these drugs are strongly reinforcing, and their long-term use at high doses is linked with potential addiction, especially when they are rapidly administered or when high-potency forms are given.
When oral formulations of psychostimulants are used at recommended doses and frequencies, they are unlikely to yield effects consistent with abuse potential in patients with ADHD. Drug Alcohol Abuse. Similar to environmental enrichment, studies have found that exercise reduces self-administration and relapse to drugs of abuse Cosgrove et al. There is also some evidence that these preclinical findings translate to human populations, as exercise reduces withdrawal symptoms and relapse in abstinent smokers Daniel et al.
In humans, the role of dopamine signaling in incentive-sensitization processes has recently been highlighted by the observation of a dopamine dysregulation syndrome in some patients taking dopaminergic drugs. This syndrome is characterized by a medication-induced increase in or compulsive engagement in non-drug rewards such as gambling, shopping, or sex Evans et al. Exercise has been proposed as a treatment for drug addiction that may reduce drug craving and risk of relapse.
Although few clinical studies have investigated the efficacy of exercise for preventing relapse, the few studies that have been conducted generally report a reduction in drug craving and better treatment outcomes Taken together, these data suggest that the potential benefits of exercise during relapse, particularly for relapse to psychostimulants, may be mediated via chromatin remodeling and possibly lead to greater treatment outcomes.
The postulate that exercise serves as an ideal intervention for drug addiction has been widely recognized and used in human and animal rehabilitation. The limited research conducted suggests that exercise may be an effective adjunctive treatment for SUDs. In contrast to the scarce intervention trials to date, a relative abundance of literature on the theoretical and practical reasons supporting the investigation of this topic has been published.
Currently, cognitive—behavioral therapies are the most successful treatment available for preventing the relapse of psychostimulant use. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs. It has been found that deltaFosB gene in the NAc is critical for reinforcing effects of sexual reward. Pitchers and colleagues reported that sexual experience was shown to cause DeltaFosB accumulation in several limbic brain regions including the NAc, medial pre-frontal cortex, VTA, caudate, and putamen, but not the medial preoptic nucleus.
Pharmacologic treatment for psychostimulant addiction is generally unsatisfactory. As previously discussed, cessation of cocaine use and the use of other psychostimulants in dependent individuals does not produce a physical withdrawal syndrome but may produce dysphoria, anhedonia, and an intense desire to reinitiate drug use.
To date, no pharmacological treatment has been approved for [addiction], and psychotherapy remains the mainstay of treatment. Expert Rev. Despite concerted efforts to identify a pharmacotherapy for managing stimulant use disorders, no widely effective medications have been approved. Drug Alcohol Depend. When considered together with the rapidly growing literature in the field a compelling case emerges in support of developing TAAR1-selective agonists as medications for preventing relapse to psychostimulant abuse. Existing data provided robust preclinical evidence supporting the development of TAAR1 agonists as potential treatment for psychostimulant abuse and addiction.
Physical Exercise There is accelerating evidence that physical exercise is a useful treatment for preventing and reducing drug addiction In some individuals, exercise has its own rewarding effects, and a behavioral economic interaction may occur, such that physical and social rewards of exercise can substitute for the rewarding effects of drug abuse. The value of this form of treatment for drug addiction in laboratory animals and humans is that exercise, if it can substitute for the rewarding effects of drugs, could be self-maintained over an extended period of time.
Work to date in [laboratory animals and humans] regarding exercise as a treatment for drug addiction supports this hypothesis.
Animal and human research on physical exercise as a treatment for stimulant addiction indicates that this is one of the most promising treatments on the horizon. Merck Manual Home Edition. Archived from the original on 17 February Retrieved 28 February Shoptaw SJ ed.
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The prevalence of this withdrawal syndrome is extremely common Cantwell ; Gossop with The severity of withdrawal symptoms is greater in amphetamine dependent individuals who are older and who have more extensive amphetamine use disorders McGregor The first phase of this syndrome is the initial "crash" that resolves within about a week Gossop ;McGregor Amphetamine, dextroamphetamine, and methylphenidate act as substrates for the cellular monoamine transporter, especially the dopamine transporter DAT and less so the norepinephrine NET and serotonin transporter.
The mechanism of toxicity is primarily related to excessive extracellular dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin.
Retrieved 3 March Amphetamine use disorders Temperature Austin. The hyperthermia and the hypertension produced by high doses amphetamines are a primary cause of transient breakdowns in the blood-brain barrier BBB resulting in concomitant regional neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation in laboratory animals. In animal models that evaluate the neurotoxicity of AMPH and METH, it is quite clear that hyperthermia is one of the essential components necessary for the production of histological signs of dopamine terminal damage and neurodegeneration in cortex, striatum, thalamus and hippocampus.
Direct toxic damage to vessels seems unlikely because of the dilution that occurs before the drug reaches the cerebral circulation. Unlike cocaine and amphetamine, methamphetamine is directly toxic to midbrain dopamine neurons. Acta Med. Zinc binds at In this context, controlled double-blind studies in children are of interest, which showed positive effects of zinc [supplementation] on symptoms of ADHD [,].
It should be stated that at this time [supplementation] with zinc is not integrated in any ADHD treatment algorithm. They did not confirm the predicted straightforward relationship between uptake and release, but rather that some compounds including AMPH were better releasers than substrates for uptake. Zinc, moreover, stimulates efflux of intracellular [3H]DA despite its concomitant inhibition of uptake Scholze et al. Basal Ganglia. Despite the challenges in determining synaptic vesicle pH, the proton gradient across the vesicle membrane is of fundamental importance for its function.
Exposure of isolated catecholamine vesicles to protonophores collapses the pH gradient and rapidly redistributes transmitter from inside to outside the vesicle. Amphetamine and its derivatives like methamphetamine are weak base compounds that are the only widely used class of drugs known to elicit transmitter release by a non-exocytic mechanism. As substrates for both DAT and VMAT, amphetamines can be taken up to the cytosol and then sequestered in vesicles, where they act to collapse the vesicular pH gradient.
Three important new aspects of TAs action have recently emerged: a inhibition of firing due to increased release of dopamine; b reduction of D2 and GABAB receptor-mediated inhibitory responses excitatory effects due to disinhibition ; and c a direct TA1 receptor-mediated activation of GIRK channels which produce cell membrane hyperpolarization. University of Paris. Retrieved 29 May On 15 June , a commemoration ceremony was conducted in Runnymede at the National Trust park, attended by British and American dignitaries. In , Bury St Edmunds in Suffolk celebrated the th anniversary of the barons' Charter of Liberties, said to have been secretly agreed there in November Numerous copies, known as exemplifications , were made of the various charters, and many of them still survive.
At least thirteen original copies of the charter of were issued by the royal chancery during that year, seven in the first tranche distributed on 24 June and another six later; they were sent to county sheriffs and bishops, who were probably charged for the privilege. Augustus II. The Dering charter was traditionally thought to be the copy sent in to the Cinque Ports ;  but in the historian David Carpenter argued that it was more probably that sent to Canterbury Cathedral , as its text was identical to a transcription made from the Cathedral's copy of the charter in the s.
The parchment was somewhat shrivelled but otherwise relatively unscathed, and an engraved facsimile of the charter was made by John Pine in In the s, however, an ill-judged and bungled attempt at cleaning and conservation rendered the manuscript largely illegible to the naked eye.
Lincoln Cathedral's copy has been held by the county since It was displayed in the Common Chamber in the cathedral, before being moved to another building in The fourth copy, held by Salisbury Cathedral, was first given in to its predecessor, Old Sarum Cathedral. Other early versions of the charters survive today. Only one exemplification of the charter survives, held in Durham Cathedral. Four exemplifications of the charter survive: the British Library holds one, which was preserved at Lacock Abbey until ; Durham Cathedral also holds a copy, with the Bodleian Library holding a third.
Only two exemplifications of Magna Carta are held outside England, both from I think it was the basis for the Declaration of Independence and the basis for the Constitution". This exemplification is now on permanent loan to the National Archives in Washington, D. The Sandwich copy was rediscovered in early in a Victorian scrapbook in the town archives of Sandwich, Kent , one of the Cinque Ports.
Most of the charter and later versions sought to govern the feudal rights of the Crown over the barons. Feudal relief was one way that a king could demand money, and clauses 2 and 3 fixed the fees payable when an heir inherited an estate or when a minor came of age and took possession of his lands. The English judicial system had altered considerably over the previous century, with the royal judges playing a larger role in delivering justice across the country. John had used his royal discretion to extort large sums of money from the barons, effectively taking payment to offer justice in particular cases, and the role of the Crown in delivering justice had become politically sensitive among the barons.
Clauses 39 and 40 demanded due process be applied in the royal justice system, while clause 45 required that the King appoint knowledgeable royal officials to the relevant roles. Royal forests were economically important in medieval England and were both protected and exploited by the Crown, supplying the King with hunting grounds, raw materials, and money.
The charter had several clauses relating to the royal forests; clauses 47 and 48 promised to deforest the lands added to the forests under John and investigate the use of royal rights in this area, but notably did not address the forestation of the previous kings, while clause 53 promised some form of redress for those affected by the recent changes, and clause 44 promised some relief from the operation of the forest courts.
Some of the clauses addressed wider economic issues. The concerns of the barons over the treatment of their debts to Jewish moneylenders, who occupied a special position in medieval England and were by tradition under the King's protection, were addressed by clauses 10 and The role of the English Church had been a matter for great debate in the years prior to the charter.
The Norman and Angevin kings had traditionally exercised a great deal of power over the church within their territories. From the s onwards successive popes had emphasised the importance of the church being governed more effectively from Rome, and had established an independent judicial system and hierarchical chain of authority. These changes brought the customary rights of lay rulers such as John over ecclesiastical appointments into question.
Only three clauses of Magna Carta still remain on statute in England and Wales. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the English charter of For other uses, see Magna Carta disambiguation. Cotton MS. Central concepts. Monarch Monarchism.
Divine right of kings Mandate of Heaven. Trienio Liberal First French Empire. Liberal Wars Second French Empire. Italian unification Meiji Restoration. Xinhai Revolution Russian Revolution. Iranian Revolution Modern Cambodia. Related topics. Main article: John, King of England. Counsellors named in Magna Carta. The Council of Twenty-Five Barons.
Excommunicated rebels. Witnesses to the charter. Play media. Magna Carta clauses in the and later charters. N 11 Further addressed Jewish money lending, stating that a widow and children should be provided for before paying an inherited debt. N 12 Determined that scutage or aid, forms of medieval taxation, could be levied and assessed only by the common consent of the realm.
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N Some exceptions to this general rule were given, such as for the payment of ransoms. N 15 Prohibited anyone from levying aid on their free men. Y 20 Stated that an amercement, a type of medieval fine, should be proportionate to the offence, but even for a serious offence the fine should not be so heavy as to deprive a man of his livelihood. Fines should be imposed only through local assessment.
N 26 Established a process for dealing with the death of those owing debts to the Crown. Y Repealed by Crown Proceedings Act N 28 Determined that a royal officer requisitioning goods must offer immediate payment to their owner. N 43 Established special provisions for taxes due on estates temporarily held by the Crown. Y 45 Stated that the King should appoint only justices, constables, sheriffs, or bailiffs who knew and would enforce the law. N 46 Permitted barons to take guardianship of monasteries in the absence of an abbot.
Y 48 Established an investigation of "evil customs" associated with royal forests, with an intent to abolishing them. N 49 Ordered the return of hostages held by the King. N 51 Ordered that all foreign knights and mercenaries leave England once peace was restored. N 52 Established a process for giving restitution to those who had been unlawfully dispossessed of their property or rights. N 53 Established a process for giving restitution to those who had been mistreated by forest law.
N 54 Prevented men from being arrested or imprisoned on the testimony of a woman, unless the case involved the death of her husband. Y 57 Established a process for returning the possessions of Welshmen who had been unlawfully dispossessed.
N 58 Ordered the return of Welsh hostages, including Prince Llywelyn's son. N 59 Established a process for the return of Scottish hostages, including King Alexander's sisters. N 60 Encouraged others in England to deal with their own subjects as the King dealt with his. Y 61 Provided for the application and observation of the charter by twenty-five of the barons. N 62 Pardoned those who had rebelled against the King. N Sometimes considered a subclause, "Suffix A", of clause N Sometimes considered a subclause, "Suffix B", of clause Latin does not have a definite article equivalent to "the".
The Oxford English Dictionary recommends usage without the definite article. Later dates are in the Gregorian calendar. In the Gregorian calendar, however, the date would have been 22 June Earl Ranulf granted his own Magna Carta of Chester. Louis argued that since John had been legitimately deposed, the barons could then legally appoint him king over the claims of John's son Henry.
However, Holt believes the Harley listing to be "the best", and the de Mowbray entries to be an error. Oxford English Dictionary. Retrieved 20 November A Dictionary of Modern Legal Usage. Oxford University Press. Magna Charta is the recommended spelling in German-language literature. British Library. Retrieved 16 March The Magna Carta Project. University of East Anglia. Retrieved 9 November Magna Carta Project. Retrieved 17 May Baronial Order of Magna Charta. Brookfield Ancestor Project.
Retrieved 4 November Oxford Dictionary of National Biography online ed. Subscription or UK public library membership required. The National Archive. Retrieved 29 July Retrieved 13 June Retrieved 30 November Salisbury Cathedral. Retrieved 25 January Boulter Grierson. Retrieved 19 January Church of England General Synod. Royal Family History. Historic UK. Magna carta cvm aliis antiqvis statvtis, qvorvm catalogvm, in fine operis reperies. London: Thomas Berthelet, Judiciary of England and Wales Speeches.
Classic Persuasion. Parliament of Australia. December Archived from the original on 6 November Retrieved 7 November Massachusetts Lawyers Weekly. National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved 30 January Free Dictionary. North Carolina', U. Retrieved 2 May The Baronial Order of Magna Charta.
Retrieved 19 November UK Statute Law Database. Archived from the original on 5 September Retrieved 2 September Segamore Institute. Archived from the original on 5 November The Independent. Retrieved 16 June Financial Times. Retrieved 21 January New Zealand Law online. Retrieved 3 December The Charters of Freedom. Architect of the Capitol. The Observer. The Guardian. Retrieved 14 May Retrieved 20 June Library of Congress. Visit Lincoln.
Royal Mint. Retrieved 27 December The Royal Mint. Archived from the original on 25 November Retrieved 24 November Retrieved 28 December Canterbury Christ Church University. Archived from the original on 23 January Retrieved 31 January Retrieved 8 June Archived from the original on 21 August Retrieved 15 September National Constitution Center.
Archived from the original on 27 September Contemporary Art Center of Virginia. The New York Times. Retrieved 4 January Lincoln Castle. Retrieved 11 April Lincoln Cathedral. Retrieved 13 November BBC News Online. Bodleian Libraries. University of Oxford. Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco. Retrieved 22 November The National Archives. Culture Papers on Parliament No.
Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 19 December The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 14 June Magna Carta Canada. National Archives. Faversham Times. Archived from the original on 12 February Museums and Heritage Advisor. Justice Court , 12 Cal. Uk Government. Retrieved 15 November Aurell, Martin Paris: Tempus. Barnes, Thomas Garden Stanford University Press. Black, Charles Breay, Claire Magna Carta: Manuscripts and Myths. London: The British Library. Breay, Claire ; Harrison, Julian, eds.
Magna Carta: Law, Liberty, Legacy. Browning, Charles Henry Burdett, Francis Sir Francis Burdett to His Constituents. Carpenter, David A. Carpenter, David London: Hambledon Press. London: Penguin. Clanchy, Michael T. Early Medieval England. The Folio Society. Clark, David Melbourne University Law Review.
Crouch, David Danziger, Danny; Gillingham, John Hodder Paperbacks. Davis, G. Magna Carta. The British Library Publishing Division. Davis, John Paul London: Peter Owen. Drew, Katherine F. Greenwood Press. Edwards, J. The English Historical Review. Eele, Caroline Perceptions of Magna Carta: Why has it been seen as significant?
PDF Thesis. Retrieved 18 November Fryde, Natalie Why Magna Carta? Angevin England Revisited. Munster, Germany: LiT. Fritze, Ronald; Robison, William Historical Dictionary of Late Medieval England — Galef, David Second Thoughts: Focus on Rereading. Goodman, Ellen Federation Press. Greenberg, Janelle Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Hallam, Elizabeth M. Capetian France, — 2nd ed. Harlow, UK: Longman. Hazeltine, H. In Malden, Henry Elliot ed. Magna Carta commemoration essays. Hewit, H. Mediaeval Cheshire.
Hill, Christopher Cambridge University Press. Hillaby, Caroline Palgrave Macmillan. Hindley, Geoffrey The Book of Magna Carta. London: Constable. Holt, James C.
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