Immanuel Kant: Zum ewigen Frieden - Der erste Zusatz (German Edition)


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Introduction

Erasmus starb im Alter von 71 Jahren. Heinrich IV. Mai wurde er im Alter von 57 Jahren ermordet. Jahrhundert wurden am Anfang der Neuzeit in Europa ca. Durch den Glauben an eine bevorstehende Apokalypse gab es Todesfurcht und Hexenwahn. Darin beschrieb er einen Ausgleich zwischen den Denominationen und befasste sich mit der Frage eines gerechten Krieges. Von bis musste sich Locke in Holland verbergen u. Wenn er gelobt wurde, reagierte Locke nicht darauf.

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The State in: The Significance of Borders

Staates erfolgen und mit einer zweidrittel Mehrheit sollte bzw. Er war mit seinen Ansichten seiner Zeit weit voraus und deshalb ein gern gesehener Gast in Europa. William Penn starb im Jahre mit 74 Jahren und wurde erst am Das In einem System von ca. Dynastien wurden gefestigt und die Politik wurde von 15 verwandten Adelsfamilien bestimmt. Jahrhundert mit internationalen Organisationen umgesetzt werden. Schiller und Andreas Riem beschrieben ca. Rousseau schuf viele politische Theorien des Deswegen forderte er eine Disziplin , um die Freiheit unter den Gesetzen aufrecht zu halten.

Kant betrieb eine methodische Grundlagenfoschung und wollte sich auf keine Utopie einlassen. Er hatte in seinem Werk eine Gliederung vorgenommen und in 2 Abschnitte sowie 9 Artikel aufgeteilt inkl. Dazu hatte er drei Definitivartikel beinhaltet: 1. Immanuel Kant starb im Alter von 80 Jahren [20]. Es gab in dem Jahrhundert insgesamt 27 Kriege , inklusive der 12 Revolutionskriege , sowie Koalitions - und Befreiungskriege.

Kaiser Napoleon I. Der Deutsche Zollverein verbesserte die Wirtschaftskraft und trieb die Industrialisierung voran. Arbeiterbewegungen , Gewerkschaften und der Sozialismus entstanden. Die meisten Regierungssysteme waren konservativ und Soziale Reformen fehlten. Gegen Ende des Mit Georg W. Als Professor konnte er, auf den Gebieten, der Rechts - und Staatswissenschaft , der Naturwissenschaft , der Medizin, der Kunsttheorie sowie der Theologie erfolgreich wirken.

Somit wirkte Saint-Simon stark auf die sozialpolitischen Vorstellungen vieler Autoren der Romantik und vor allem der vielen politischer Akteure des Jahrhunderts.

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Dadurch war er im Widerspruch von Karl Marx. Er starb mit 65, im Jahr in Paris und gilt heute als ein Wegbereiter der wissenschaftlichen Soziologie und zugleich des politischen Sozialismus [23]. Er starb mit 68 Jahren am 9. Juni in Wien, gesellschaftlich isoliert und trotz aller Anstrengungen und Verdienste nicht wirklich geachtet [24]. Durch zwei Umsturzversuchen, die in Genua und Savoyen scheiterten und die er von Genf aus geleitet hatte, wurde Mazzini in Abwesenheit zum Tode verurteilt.

Allerdings konnte diese nur ein viertel Jahr bestehen, denn mit seinen radikaldemokratischen Zielen, blieb Mazzini erfolglos. Schon ab hatte es in Amerika und England mehrere Friedensvereine gegeben, wodurch sich im Juni in London der erste Friedenskongress entwickelt hatte. Als Schriftsteller blieb Hugo weiterhin enorm produktiv, so dass er vor allem erfolgreich auf das Elend der proletarisierten Arbeitermassen aufmerksam machte.

Krieg und Gewalt wurden von ihm verabscheut und er wollte mit allen Mitteln die Demokratie verteidigen. Mehrere seiner Werke wurden vom Vatikan auf den Verbot- Index gesetzt. Im Ersten Weltkrieg mit ca. Januar sein Punkte-Programm vor, das u. Januar bis zum Januar dauerte. Alle Hoffnungen setzte er auch auf innere Reformen, u. Mai der erste internationale Karlspreis der Stadt Aachen verliehen. Graf Coudenhove-Kalergi starb mit 79 Jahren. Aristide Briand war von bis insg. Papst Pius X. Bekannte Wirtschaftswissenschaftler waren der gleichen Meinung und bis konnten ca. Daraufhin wurde Aristide Briand am 9.

Briand schlug dann noch einmal am Mai diese Zollunion einstimmig ab und am 3. Januar die sog. Machtergreifung Hitlers begann. Mai wurde Aristide Briand im sog. Briand starb am 7. Er hatte schon ab an Kriegen teilgenommen und sich mit den Ansichten von Lionel Curtis auseinandergesetzt. Um vom 9. August die sog. Diese Freiheiten vom 6. Juni zur Grundlage der Nachkriegsordnung und der Vereinten Nationen. Auf der Konferenz von Casablanca wurde von beiden Politikern eine gemeinsame Kriegsstrategie festgelegt.

Februar bekannt gegeben wurde. Wir sind bei Europa, aber nicht von ihm. Er starb mit 91 Jahren am Januar Vom Durch das Stauffenberg Attentat am Charles de Gaulle richtete am Ab dem Juni 40 im Exil , konnte er am In seinem eigenen Plan, den Monnet in seinem Auftrag ausarbeitete, schlug de Gaulle am September wurde ihre Zollunion beschlossen.

Er starb am 9. November im Alter von 80 Jahren. Toynbee und Robert Vansittrat. Erst am Mai war Schumann mit dem streng geheim gehaltenen Plan-Konzept, einverstanden. Mai wurde Dean Gooderham Acheson und am 8. Mai Kornrad Adenauer schriftlich eingeweiht und beide stimmten emphatisch zu. Trotz Bedenken billigte Dienstagmorgen am 9. Jean Monnet starb am Als General befehligte er die mehr als Als Premierminister der Polnischen Exilregierung , nahm er am Lindauer in Munich.

The same. The work has no originality ; but is very well adapted for its purpose, — to spare the public which desires to obtain no more than a general and superficial notion of the contents of Rel. That, indeed, is shown by the number of pirated editions. The author gives an easily understood account of the contents of Rel. In the : Deutsches Magazin. November, pp. The sub-title promises a great deal more than the article performs. Note- worthy are the polemic against alienable rights and remitting duties [against Fichte], and the criticism of the newest definitions of the concept of right.

Kellner is certainly an opponent of the happiness system. At the same time he regards it as unjustifiable to accuse him, in the desire of refuting his position, of inability consequently to deduce a tenable ethics, religion, and theology from his own principles.

Exposition of the contents of Reinhold's " Theorie " [no. Nowhere is- there any indication of a doubt, or of an essential modification or refu- tation of the objections urged by opponents. Kern had originally planned the work simply for the facilitation of his own study. He published it subsequently, as a guide to his lectures. For this purpose it would do very well. Small 8vo. Eight sheets. Quite suitable for its purpose. It con- tains no new thoughts, being simply the result of a melting-down of Rein- hold's letters on the Kantian philosophy [nos.

Freyherr : Ueber Eigennulz und Undank. Also : 8vo. Frankfort on the Main. Her- mann. Cheap edition. The categorical imperative, it is declared, vainly seeks to destroy human freedom, to make men bondsmen and slaves, and to banish gratitude from the world once and for all. Tubingen, pp. Kostlin derives the principle of right from practical reason ; but not from the moral law.

Kant: "Zum ewigen Frieden" - Michael Reder

Hamburg and Leipsic. Humanity is made to consist in the " Zusammenstimmung der Sinnlichkeit und Vernunft. Reprinted in no. The appended essay is a revision and more detailed exposition of the first part of no. In the : Neue Bibliothek der schb'nen Wissenschaften und der freyen Ktinste. Trgtt: Kleine philosophische Schriften. Contains no. All these works were reprinted in: Krugs gesammelte Schriften. Section Hi. Philosophische Schriften. Also under the title : Philosophische Schriften. Ein- ladungsschrift zur Herbstpriifung des Gymnasiums.

Analyses the concept of humanity established by Kant in U. An eine Freundin. In: Der Genius der Zeit. The goal is unity with one's self ; by which expression the author understands the following of the Kantian supreme moral principle. He uses it by way of popularizing the Kantian doctrine. Montag und Weiss, pp. The views of Kant on the question, as expressed in the Pr. Polemic against the happiness- principle in ethics. In: Fulleborns Beytrdge zur Geschichte der Philosophie.

Part vii. Some thoughts upon the endeavors of Reinhold, Fichte and Abicht to discover a first principle for philosophy. Schmids Psychologisches Magazin. The essay is principally concerned to furnish a theory of associations, following in its outlines the psychological portion of Kant's epistemology. The continuation appeared under the title : Schmid, K. In the : Anthropologisches Journal. Herausgegeben von K. But it cannot be recognized as such, unless we believe in the possibility of an infinite progress towards perfection.

There results from this an universal, necessary, practical belief in the perfectibility of the human race. The refutations of materialism on the part of the Kantians do not satisfy the author. He therefore gives one of his own, which at the same time purports to be Kantian, rightly understood.

TERROR IN THE NAME OF HUMAN RIGHTS

But nevertheless he takes things fairly easily. Thus he assumes that it will be admitted that certain determinations within us — ideation, feeling, desire — are not to be looked upon as temporal determinations ; and that we must be something immaterial, since we are beings with such determinations. The extension of the distinction drawn by Kant between regulative and constitutive principles to the sphere of psychology, and in particular to the question of the substantiality of the mind [Seele], is very unhappy and wholly unfruitful.

The writer's own remarks have no value. The author's opinions differ, and in part differ not inconsiderably, from those of Kant. There is no determining judgment. The reflecting judgment subsumes under unclear, reason under clear concepts. Kant looks on judgment as the connecting link between understanding and reason : one might, with just as good a right, consider reason as the means of union of understanding with judgment ; etc.

By Fr. The articles 1 in vol. Ill are by an unknown hand. They read con- tinuously : 1 Verhaltniss, Ueber das der empirischen Psychologie zur Meta- physik. The author attempts to demonstrate the necessity of a science such as Kant has expounded in the Critique of Pure Reason. He asserts that the foundations of such a science must be purely psycho- logical ; that is to say, that we know, purely empirically, from our inner experience, both that we have knowledge a priori and what this knowledge is : Kant is said to have "nicht bestimmt im Auge gehabt" the difference between knowledge a priori, and the empirical knowledge that there is such a thing as this aprioristic knowledge, — otherwise he would not have defined and employed the expression " transcendental " in such various ways.

The fruitless endeavors of Reinhold, Fichte and Schelling to discover a supreme principle for philosophy are also referred in the main to the fact that they did not draw the distinction in question. Meyer, as to whether the discovery of aprioristic knowledge was an a priori or an a posteriori process, is here, as we see, — and, there can be no doubt, rightly, — decided in favor of Meyer. The influence of the R. The rational must, in the writer's opinion, be connected in psychological investigations with the empirical.

The only source of knowledge for the psychologist is the inner experience ; that is, pure self-consciousness and the internal sense. This metaphysic is said to contain that " was man mit Grunde als a priori erkennbar der innern Erfahrung voraussetzen kann. Principal contents : a classification of the "inneren Gemiithsvermogen," a survey of each one of them taken separately, and a comparison of the three principal faculties.

Follows Kant closely on every point. Bohn and Company, pp. Meier stands under the influence of the Kantian philosophy of history, and follows very closely the Kantian Idee [no. The natural dispositions of mankind, which are involved in the exercise of reason, can only develop in the race, not in the individual. The race matures to a greater and greater perfection ; for this there is necessary a law-abiding system — in the Kantian sense — of republican states, which renders possible to the individual man as to the state at large the unimpeded enjoyment of external freedom, and assures an unbroken peace.

Einige Bemerkicngen fur Philosophen und Criminalisten. Mann- heim. With Schwan and Gotz, in commission, pp. The pagination passes from to , without leaves inserted. After- wards separately printed. On the basis of the Fichtean system Marklin demonstrates the imperishability of the ego by a transcendental deduction of time from the pure ego; and disputes Kant's moral proof, as being unnecessary and inadequate.

The latter objection tells against it, it is urged, for this reason: that it remains within the world of objects, and does not, as it should, go back to the pure ego, which is eternal and which posits the world of objects and therewith time. Jena, pp. Summary of moral-theology according to Kant Mellin, G. Ein Versuch fiber die ersten Griinde des Naturrechts.

In particular, Mellin has made industrious use of Kant's Fr. The concept of right he deduces from the concept of perfect duty ; that is to say, he looks upon duty as the sole source of right. Also under the title : Compendiose Bibliothek der gemeinniitztigsten Kenntnisse filr alle Stdnde. Section XII. Der Mensch. Psychology Seelenlehre. Eisenach und Halle. In this psychology, which remains from first to last within the limits of experience, use is made, among other things, of an unpublished anthropological Heft of Kant's.

The passages quoted from it are enclosed in brackets. Auditoribus suis primum in annum phi- losophis scripsit. Bamberg and Wiirzburg. Gobhardt's Widow, pp. The work contains no new thoughts of any kind ; is developed entirely on the lines laid down by Jakob, Kiesewetter and others ; and, like no. Many of the works in question show their dependency upon Kant by the very phrasing of their titles.

Pars I. Critica rationis practicae. Programma I. In usum auditorii scripsit. Second edition. Heft 1. Die Lehre der anthropologischen Di- daktik V07n Erkenntnissvermbgen. Large 8 vo. Die allgemeine praktische Philosophie und das Naturrecht. Zum Ge- brauche seiner Vorlesungen. A polemic, — on the' whole justified ; though not altogether free from misunderstandings — against Kant's formal moral principles : to which Meyer opposes the principle of general happiness or perfection in a modified form. Upon this same principle Meyer bases his doctrine of right.

Gives its readers nothing but a summary of the part of U. Ein Versuch zur Erlduterung iiber Itn. Kants Kritik der praktischen Vernunft. Die Grund lehren der Moral und des Naturrechts betreffend. Die Grundlehren der moralischen Religion und Erziehung betreffend. It was not unsuited for its purpose ; being a quite clear, though diffuse and often too literal exposition of the views of Kant and Reinhold. But there was absolutely no reason which should have induced its author to allow it to be printed : it has no sign of originality, and brings neither new thoughts nor any special method of treatment to bear upon the elucidation of Kant's teaching.

In the preface Michaelis gives an indication of the increasing influence which Fichte is exercising upon him: while in no. Fichtes Grundlage des Naturrechts, nebst einem Aussuge derselben. Mit Riicksicht auf Int. Kants Entivurf zum ewigen Frieden und metaphysische Anfangsgriinde der Rechtslehre. Reinicke and Hinrichs. P art iii and last. Parts i and ii also under the title : Allgemeines Naturrecht. Part iii also under the title : Allgemeines Staatsrecht. New edition in two volumes, under the title : Allgemeines Naturrecht, nach den Grundsdtzen der Vernunft, mit Hinsicht auf die neuesten Entdeckungen in dieser Wissenschaft j allgemeines Staatsrecht nach Fichtes Principien erldutert.

Michaelis wished further to imitate his master Fichte in the matter of his popular ethical lectures [cf. There was absolutely no necessity for him to do this ; apart from the fact that he did not possess any natural eloquence, and was lacking in brevity and conciseness of expression, in intellect, in humor, and in originality of idea. The consequence was that he produced nothing but watery, diffuse and tedious declamations on such subjects as the feeling of reverence, the dignity of man, the value of true virtue [virtue, that is, which is not founded upon eudaemonism], etc.

Weissen- burg in Franken. Oberdeutsches Adresse- und Industrie-Comptoir. New edition, under the title: Moralische Vorlesungen iiber das Wesen der Tugend und der sittlichen Wiirde. Erstes Bandchen. Neue Auflage. Sine anno. Joachims Literarisches Magazin. A second volume of these lectures appeared. It bore, for that reason [besides the title Moralische Vorlesungen iiber das Wesen der Tugend und der sittlichen Wiirde. Six sheets. New and enlarged edition, under the title : Lehrbuch zur Befbrderung der Humanitdt.

Marburg, pp. Kantian thoughts. The final goal of the world is the harmony between happiness and morality. The moral government of God [providence] is a postulate of the practical reason. Moral evil is necessary, since no virtue is possible without it. Physical evil is necessary as a means of education, and in order to guarantee purity to virtue. Detailed polemic against Theodicies of opposite opinions. Quid Religio moralis ad formandos juvenum animos faciat? Two sheets in each part. In the : B. Sine loco.

There are no arguments, founded upon knowledge, either for or against the existence of God and the immor- tality of the soul. We must therefore have recourse to revelation. With pp. A large part of this no. Altogether justified are the complaints of the immoderate and often forced use made of the Kantian terminology, of the application of Kantian principles to sciences with which they have nothing to do, of the inclination of many of Kant's disciples to fall into an artificial, obscure and difficult literary style, and of the unwarranted demand for absolute and universal validity, and the contempt for the empirical which went along with it.

At the same time the effect of these complaints is very greatly weakened by their improper tone : by the arrogance and self-sufficiency with which they are put forward. Moreover, Nicolai makes them far too sweeping in character. And one can very easily trace in them the personal irritation of a man who had for many years occupied a position of influence among the literary men of Germany, and who now felt that this position was threatened.

We must note further the presence of direct, unmasked and vulgar attacks upon persons of far greater eminence than Nicolai himself ; such as Fichte, Schelling, Schiller, Erhard; — and again upon others who, if not actually important in themselves, yet did not stand so very, very far behind Nicolai in rank ; such as Graffe, Polilz, Goess, Niethammer, Heydenreich and Roth. Schiller, but against Nicolai himself : they show his incapacity to under- stand and appreciate Schiller. That these attacks were so completely out of place ; that Nicolai took any peg that he could find to hang them on — they were sandwiched into a description of Tubingen, because it was in that place that Cotta published the Horen!

This was all a most hopeless self-delusion. Nicolai altogether overestimated the extent of his own influence. Far more important is the annihilating judgment, which Schiller and Goethe passed upon Nicolai, in no. Tu- bingen. Most important in this is the fable, p. Nicolai defended himself against Schiller in no. He is able to discover many weaknesses in the poetry of the fable : but he does not see that this makes no difference to the value of its contents. Berlin and Stettin, pp. In no. Here too, as also in nos. But they become more and more immoderate and vulgar. Espe- cially disagreeable are the expressions vonvornig and vonhintenig con- stantly employed in no.

In a novel they are, perhaps, just allowable : though even there every man of taste would, of course, prefer a good telling joke to such child's-play. But they become absolutely unbearable in serious scientific works. Nebst zwey Urkunden der neuesten deutschen Philosophic 8vo. New edition. Gegels seel. Just as in no.


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Nicolai is especially pleased with himself, here and in no. He perpetually calls attention to the fact that this collating bears witness to his close study of the works of Kant. Under some mysterious stroke of blindness — doubly mysterious in the editor of the A. He has no idea that it is very easy to find contradictions in a philosopher ; but that the real difficulty consists in resolving these contradictions, if only apparent, and, if after long and careful testing they prove real, in furnishing a psychological explanation of them.

The contradictions discovered by Nicolai exist, to a large extent, solely in his imagination. Often he shows himself to be a mere trifler ; often again he is guilty of serious misunder- standings [cf. But not seldom, on the other hand, he does put his finger upon real defects of the Kantian system ; although they are only such as lie pretty obviously upon the surface of things, and had been frequently pointed out by his predecessors on the path of criticism. He has absolutely no mental endowment for really deep phi- losophical speculation. Gesprache, ijgS. In this last work Erhard also obtained his share ; pp.

He replied in no. Kant himself had replied to no. But in he appeared in the arena with a little work [no. Mbser, lygS'] ; and in the second part of which he makes short and sharp work of Nicolai. Nicolai replied still more sharply; attempted to prove that he possessed a real knowledge of the critical philosophy; defended himself against Erhard ; and endeavored to effect the literary annihilation of Fichte.

Erhard und Fichte. Berlin and Stettin. Nicolai could not even talk about false hair, without giving vent in the preface to his animosity against Kant and his school : a Nicolai, Frdr. Eine historische Untersuchung. Mit 66 Kupferstichen. It is true that Nicolai's notice of the death of Kant, in the : A N. But the personal ma- lignity and despicable attitude of Nicolai appear again in their true forms in a review, subscribed Tn.

The unworthy treat- ment which Kant received at the hands of Nicolai drew upon the latter, of course, a number of justifiable attacks from the camp of the Kantians. For instance : in the Gothaische gelehrte Zeitung his barefaced distortions and stupid jokes were repeatedly held up to public derision [see, e. Nicolai attempts, without success, to enter a defense of himself, in no. In the ; N. Beylage zum 4ten Stuck, pp.

Answered, finally, by : 1 Nicolai, Frdr. Fichte replied, in no. Fichte writes with a truly startling openness — not to say, coarseness. But when this might strike the reader unpleasantly, it is tempered by wit and humor. Nevertheless, the personal insults and unfounded ascriptions of opinion should have been omitted : as regards the latter, the work in many places far overshoots the mark.

Such indications of animosity could not fail, of course, to obstruct the accomplishment of the legitimate purpose of the book, — that of stemming the flood of Nicolai's literary influence, and annihilating him as a philosopher. Fichte, to avoid any further unpleasantness, was ready, in conse- quence of this, to leave the work unprinted in any shape. But Schlegel published it, altogether on his own responsibility, and without the author's knowledge.

Ein Beytrag zur Literargeschichte des vergangenen und zur raedagogik des angehenden Jahrhunderts. Herausgegeben von A. Fichte, Sdmmtliche Werke; vol. VIII, pp. Against it appeared no. Nebst merkwurdigen Proben der Wahrheitsliebe, reifen Ueberlegenheit, Bescheidenheit, Urbanitdt und gutgelaunten Gross- muth des Stifters der neuesten Philosophie. Eine Beylage zunt Ixi. Bande der N.

Also published independently. Nicolai took his revenge on Fichte in contemptible fashion, by doing all that lay in his power to prevent Fichte's reception into the philosophical class of the Royal Academy of Sciences at Berlin, which had been proposed by a member of this class. Nicolai's exposition concerning Fichte's reception, in no. Nicolais Lebcn und literarischcr Nachlass. Heraus- gegeben von L. Nicolaische Buchhandlung.

The dispute between Fichte and Nicolai stirred up a great deal of dust, and brought still other publications in its train. But it would take us too far to go into this matter in detail. Besondere Beylage zum I. They consist, for the most part, of lectures, delivered before the Berlin Academy of Sciences ; to the speculative-philosophical class of which Nicolai — mira- bile dictu!

Grbsstentheils vorgelesen in der konigl. Academie der Wis- senschaften zu Berlin. The question raised in the title is answered, rightly, in the negative. Replied to by no. By Sincerus Criticus. In the: Deutsche Monatsschrift. January, pp. In the : Nene B. July, pp. In the : Sammlung der deutschen Abhandlungen, welche in der kbniglichen Akadcmie der Wis- senschaften zu Berlin vorgelesen worden in den Jahren 1S01 und Decker, pp.

Read on the eleventh of November, Also translated into French, under the title : Stir les abstractions, les imperfections qui en sont inseparables et letir frdquent abus. Published in the : Mtmoires de Vacadtmie royale des sciences et belles-lettres.


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Year Classe de phi- losophic speculative, pp. Reprinted in German in : Nicolais philo- sophische Abhandlungen. Grbsstenthcils vorgelesen in der konigl. Academie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin cf. Against the aprioristic deductions of the critical philosophy, and their abuse of empty abstractions. And against Kant's definition of the activity of abstraction. In the : Samm- lung der deutschen Abhandlungen, welche in der kbniglichen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin vorgelesen worden in dem fahre iSoj.

Read on the twenty-first of July, Also translated into French, under the title : Sur le regressus logique, et sur Vidde qu 'atiachaient d ce mot les anciens commentateurs d' 'Aristote. Published in the : Mhnoires de V academie royale des sciences et belles- lettres cf. Classe de philosophic speculative, pp. Reprinted in German in: Nicolais philosophische Abhandlungen.

Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin cf. Written on the occasion of the Academy's receiv- ing a legacy, bequeathed it by Captain von Miloczewsky, an acquaint- ance and disciple of Kant's, with the condition " dass die Zinsen davon zur Untersuchung philosophischer Wahrheiten und besonders des Regressus verwendet werden sollten. Histoire de l'acaddmie. There can be no doubt that such was not the donor's intention.

Vorgelesen in der konigl. Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin am Junius, 8. November, und 6. December 1S In : Nicolais philosophische Abhandlungen. Grbsstentheils vorgelesen in der koniglichen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin cf. Under the above title lies concealed a piece of polemical writing directed against Kant's theoretical and practical philosophy.

The same judgment is to be passed upon the contents of the three lectures, as upon the earlier of Nicolai's works [and in particular nos. The contents is brought into connection with the title by the remark, that "das ungerechte Vertrauen der Philosophen auf die Kraft und auf den Werth leerer Terminologien oder willkiihrlicher Satze eben so sehr Aberglauben ist, als das Vertrauen irgend eines aber- glaubigen Menschen auf die Kraft eines Talismans.

In the : N. August, pp. Reprinted in : Nicolais philosophische Abhandlungen. Refutation of certain critical philosophers, who desire to determine the course of history beforehand, and, if their prophecies do not come true, complain of the degeneracy of the age. Written in a contemptible, self-sufficient, would-be witty and amusing tone.

Zwey Vorlesungen, vorgelesen in der koniglichen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin am 6. Hornung und 4. Marz Grbsstentheils vor- gelesen in der koniglichen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin cf. Among other things a polemic against the critical philosophers ; they have, it is asserted, done upon the whole more harm than good to students by their deductions a priori and by the fact that they claim for their propositions universal validity and necessity. An den Herm Stadtschreiber Krais in Beilstcin.

In the: Nth. A summary of no. Section v. Der Religionslehrer. Parts x and xi. Also under the special title : Der Geistliche oder Religions- lehrer, das ist, Compendiose Bibliothek alles Wissenswiirdigen iiber Religion und populdre Theologie. Parts X and xi. Eisenach and Halle. The critical philosophy is not to be blamed for the prevalent coldness and universal indifference as regards religion. It is rather the only means of introducing better times : for it can prove, and in that way can convince mankind, that religion is duty.

Defends Kant against the serious misunderstanding which represented him as desirous of doing away with the grammatical-historical interpretation of scripture, and so introducing a new barbarism. Is, however, unable to give assent to Kant's views. Rather regards the practical reason only as a criterion for discriminating the essential portions of the Bible from those which possess no general religious interest.

A very circumspect investigation, with valu- able literary references. Continuations of these last, beyond the year 1 , may be found, together with a very careful synopsis of the arguments alleged for and against the Kantian doctrine, in no. Year V. Fifteen sheets. Second edition, enlarged and improved.

Kant's moral philosophy and moral-theology popularized. In the : JVeues deutsches Magazin. October, pp. Justifiable polemic against the historical and aprio- ristic proofs [among them, that of Kant, from the holiness of God] for the progress of mankind in the direction of goodness. A monetary speculation. The lecture notes of a Kantian who had devoted special attention to anthropology. They appear to have been faultily taken down, and to have been prepared for the press without the author's knowledge.

The little work is consequently full of bad misunderstandings ; in places several versions of the same thought stand side by side ; explanations and discussions of the text are interpolated in it, without any bracket to mark their parenthetical character, etc. Defense of Kant's moral exegesis, as being the proper pendant to the customary dogmatic interpretation. Hezels : iiber Geist und Fleisch etc. Penzenkuffer carries moral exegesis to far greater extremes than Kant had ever thought of. Not only does he propose to read a possible, though perhaps unintended, moral significance into the passages to be explained, but he forces this significance upon them, as their true historical meaning.

Commentatio, quae ad legati Stolpiani prae- mium anno Q proxime accessit.

The Philosophy of Immanuel Kant. Kant's Contribution to the Enlightenment Period

Denuo ab Auctore perlustrata et corollario ad ostendendam congruentiam cum principiis philosophiae Kan- tianae aucta. In: Commentationes theologiae editae a fh. Velthusen, Chr. Kuinoel et Geo. Kant has, it is true, urged objections against the possibility of a rational, theoretical knowledge of God ; but he has not demonstrated its impossibility. It has in this way justified the undertaking of such investigations as those presented in no. Am Tage seines Hin- tritts in die bessere Welt, nach Kantischen Grundsdtzen, gehalten, vor einer Versammlung gelehrter Manner, die sick nach seiner Vorschrift zu leben verpflichtet haben.

Five sheets. Facts are adduced from St. Benedict's life and monastic rules, from which the orator attempts to show that the saint became a saint in accordance with Kant's moral principles. In the: B. This gave occasion to no. In : Henkes Magazin fiir Religionsphilo- sophie, etc. An unsuccessful attempt to emasculate the objections taken to the Kantian doctrine, or to evade them by putting a particular interpretation upon its exposition.

In einem Briefe an einen Freund. No- vember, pp. The two bodies of doctrine are alike necessary and useful to mankind ; the eudaemonistic forming the lower, the Kantian the higher stage. And in no. Both nos. The author is a fervid disciple of the Kantian philosophy, and most emphatically recommends his clerical scholars to pursue their studies in theology and philosophy in the Kantian spirit, with constant reference to the progress of morality.

Before Kant, he says, there was no philosophy at all ; the happiness-principle which dominated ethics is really the extreme of immorality, and its acceptance was followed by fickleness and inconstancy! Three and a half sheets. Among other things, an exposition of the Kantian views of proofs of the existence of God. In : Deutschland. Reprinted in : Fr. Schlegels prosaische Jugendschriften, herausgegeben von J. Among other things, defends the justifiability of revolution in certain cases. Itn Grundriss fiir Vorlesungen. Jena and Leipsic.

Independent exposition of the Kantian moral-theology and philosophy of religion. The relation of the science of religion to all the other departments of philosophy is discussed and determined, and the principles of classifi- cation within the science itself set forth. In this a principal part is played by the notorious Schmidian divisions, subdivisions, definitions, etc. In the deduction of the fundamental religious concepts Schmid diverges from the teaching of the Kantian philosophy.

Pure religious belief springs up, according to him, as a necessary result, from the free, natural activity of human impulses.

Immanuel Kant: Zum ewigen Frieden - Der erste Zusatz (German Edition) Immanuel Kant: Zum ewigen Frieden - Der erste Zusatz (German Edition)
Immanuel Kant: Zum ewigen Frieden - Der erste Zusatz (German Edition) Immanuel Kant: Zum ewigen Frieden - Der erste Zusatz (German Edition)
Immanuel Kant: Zum ewigen Frieden - Der erste Zusatz (German Edition) Immanuel Kant: Zum ewigen Frieden - Der erste Zusatz (German Edition)
Immanuel Kant: Zum ewigen Frieden - Der erste Zusatz (German Edition) Immanuel Kant: Zum ewigen Frieden - Der erste Zusatz (German Edition)
Immanuel Kant: Zum ewigen Frieden - Der erste Zusatz (German Edition) Immanuel Kant: Zum ewigen Frieden - Der erste Zusatz (German Edition)

Related Immanuel Kant: Zum ewigen Frieden - Der erste Zusatz (German Edition)



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